Chapter 17 Classes and methods 类和方法

Although we are using some of Python’s object-oriented features, the programs from the last two chapters are not really object-oriented because they don’t represent the relationships between programmer-defined types and the functions that operate on them. The next step is to transform those functions into methods that make the relationships explicit.

前两章我们已经用到了Python 的一些面向对象的特性了,但那写程序实际上并不算是真正面向对象的,因为它们并没能够表现出用户自定义类型与对这些类型进行运算的函数之间的关系。所以接下来的移步就是要把这些函数转换成方法,让这些关系更明确。

Code examples from this chapter are available from Here, and solutions to the exercises are in Here.

本章的样例代码可以在 这里下载,然后练习题的样例代码可以在这里下载

17.1 Object-oriented features 面向对象的特性

Python is an object-oriented programming language, which means that it provides features that support object-oriented programming, which has these defining characteristics:

Python 是一种面向对象的编程语言,这就意味着它提供了一些支持面向对象编程的功能,有以下这些特点:

• Programs include class and method definitions.

程序包含类和方法的定义。

• Most of the computation is expressed in terms of operations on objects.

大多数运算都以对象运算的形式来实现。

• Objects often represent things in the real world, and methods often correspond to the ways things in the real world interact.

对象往往代表着现实世界中的事物,方法则相对应地代表着现实世界中事物之间的相互作用。

For example, the Time class defined in Chapter 16 corresponds to the way people record the time of day, and the functions we defined correspond to the kinds of things people do with times. Similarly, the Point and Rectangle classes in Chapter 15 correspond to the mathematical concepts of a point and a rectangle.

例如,第16章中定义的 Time 类就代表了人们生活中计算一天时间的方法,然后当时咱们写的那些函数就对应着人们对时间的处理。同理,在第15章定义的 Point 和 Rectangle 类就对应着现实中的数学概念上的点和矩形。

So far, we have not taken advantage of the features Python provides to support object-oriented programming. These features are not strictly necessary; most of them provide alternative syntax for things we have already done. But in many cases, the alternative is more concise and more accurately conveys the structure of the program.

到此为止,我们还没有用到 Python 提供的用于面向对象编程的高级功能。这些高级功能并不是严格意义上必须使用的;它们大多是提供了一些我们已经实现的功能的一种备选的语法形式。不过在很多情况下,这种备选的模式更加简洁,也能更加准确地表述程序的结构。

For example, in Time1.py there is no obvious connection between the class definition and the function definitions that follow. With some examination, it is apparent that every function takes at least one Time object as an argument.

例如,在 Time1.py 里面,类的定义和后面的函数定义就没有啥明显的练习。测试一下就会发现,每一个后续的函数里面都至少用了一个 Time 对象作为参数。

This observation is the motivation for methods; a method is a function that is associated with a particular class. We have seen methods for strings, lists, dictionaries and tuples. In this chapter, we will define methods for programmer-defined types.

这样的观察结果就表明可以使用方法;方法是某一特定的类所附带的函数。之前我们看到过字符串、列表、字典以及元组的一些方法。在本章,咱们将要给用户自定义类型写一些方法。

Methods are semantically the same as functions, but there are two syntactic differences:

方法在语义上与函数是完全相同的,但在语法上有两点不同:

• Methods are defined inside a class definition in order to make the relationship between the class and the method explicit.

方法要定义在一个类定义内部,这样能保证方法和类之间的关系明确。

• The syntax for invoking a method is different from the syntax for calling a function.

调用一个方法的语法与调用函数的语法不一样。

In the next few sections, we will take the functions from the previous two chapters and transform them into methods. This transformation is purely mechanical; you can do it by following a sequence of steps. If you are comfortable converting from one form to another, you will be able to choose the best form for whatever you are doing.

在接下来的章节中,我们就要把之前两章写过的一些函数改写成方法。这种转换是纯机械的;你就遵守一系列步骤就可以实现了。如果你对二者之间的相互转化很熟悉了,你就可以根据情况自己选择是用函数还是用方法。

17.2 Printing objects 输出对象

In Chapter 16, we defined a class named Time and in Section 16.1, you wrote a function named print_time:

在16.1,我们定义过一个名为Time 的类,当时写过月名为 print_time 的函数:

class Time:
"""Represents the time of day."""
def print_time(time):
    print('%.2d:%.2d:%.2d' % (time.hour, time.minute, time.second))

To call this function, you have to pass a Time object as an argument:

要调用这个函数,就必须给传递过去一个TIme 对象作为参数:

>>> start = Time()
>>> start = Time()
>>> start.hour = 9
>>> start.hour = 9
>>> start.minute = 45
>>> start.minute = 45
>>> start.second = 00
>>> start.second = 00
>>> print_time(start)
>>> print_time(start)
09:45:00

To make print_time a method, all we have to do is move the function definition inside the class definition. Notice the change in indentation.

要让 print_time 成为一个方法,只需要把函数定义内容放到类定义里面去。一定要注意缩进的变化哈。

class Time:
    def print_time(time):
        print('%.2d:%.2d:%.2d' % (time.hour, time.minute, time.second))

Now there are two ways to call print_time. The first (and less common) way is to use function syntax:

现在就有两种方法来调用 print_time 这个函数了。第一种就是用函数的语法(一般大家不这么用):

>>> Time.print_time(start)
>>> Time.print_time(start)
09:45:00

In this use of dot notation, Time is the name of the class, and print_time is the name of the method. start is passed as a parameter.

上面这里用到了点号,Time 是类的名字,pritn_time 是方法的名字。start 就是传过去的一个参数了。

The second (and more concise) way is to use method syntax:

另外一种形式就是用方法的语法(这个形式更简洁很多):

>>> start.print_time()
>>> start.print_time()
09:45:00

In this use of dot notation, print_time is the name of the method (again), and start is the object the method is invoked on, which is called the subject. Just as the subject of a sentence is what the sentence is about, the subject of a method invocation is what the method is about.

在上面这里也用了点号,print_time 依然还是方法名字,然后 start 是调用方法所在的对象,也叫做主语。这里就如同句子中的主语一样,方法调用的主语就是方法的归属者。

Inside the method, the subject is assigned to the first parameter, so in this case start is assigned to time. By convention, the first parameter of a method is called self, so it would be more common to write print_time like this:

在方法内部,主语被用作第一个参数,所以在上面的例子中中,start 就被赋值给了 time。

按照惯例,方法的第一个参数也叫做 self,所以刚刚的 print_time 函数可以以如下这种更通用的形式来写:

class Time:
    def print_time(self):
        print('%.2d:%.2d:%.2d' % (self.hour, self.minute, self.second))

The reason for this convention is an implicit metaphor:

这种改写还有更深层次的意义:

• The syntax for a function call, print_time(start), suggests that the function is the active agent. It says something like, “Hey print_time! Here’s an object for you to print.”

函数调用的语法里面,print_time(start),就表明了函数是主动的。这句语句的意思就相当于说,『嘿,print_time 函数!给你这个对象,你来打印输出一下。』

• In object-oriented programming, the objects are the active agents. A method invocation like start.print_time() says “Hey start! Please print yourself.”

在面向对象的编程中,对象是主动的。方法的调用,比如 start.rint_time(),就像是说,『嘿,start,你打印输出一下你自己』

This change in perspective might be more polite, but it is not obvious that it is useful. In the examples we have seen so far, it may not be. But sometimes shifting responsibility from the functions onto the objects makes it possible to write more versatile functions (or methods), and makes it easier to maintain and reuse code.

看上去这样改了之后客气了不少,实际上不止如此,还有更多用处,只是不太明显。目前我们看到过的例子里面,这样改写还没有造成什么区别。但是有的时候,从函数转为对象,能够让函数(或者方法)更加通用,也让程序更容易维护,还便于代码的重用。

As an exercise, rewrite time_to_int (from Section 16.4) as a method. You might be tempted to rewrite int_to_time as a method, too, but that doesn’t really make sense because there would be no object to invoke it on.

做个练习吧,重写一下 time_to_int(参见16.4),把这个函数写成一个方法。你也可以试着把 int_to_time 也携程方法,不过这可能不太行得通,因为把这个函数改成方法的话,没有对象来调用方法。

17.3 Another example 另外一个例子

Here’s a version of increment (from Section 16.3) rewritten as a method:

下面是 increment 函数(参见16.4)被改写成的方法:

# inside class Time:
def increment(self, seconds):
    seconds += self.time_to_int()
    return int_to_time(seconds)

This version assumes that time_to_int is written as a method. Also, note that it is a pure function, not a modifier. Here’s how you would invoke increment:

这一版本的前提是 time_to_int 已经被改写成方法了。另外也要注意到,这是一个纯函数,而不是修改器。

下面是调用 increment 的示范:

>>> start.print_time()
>>> start.print_time()
09:45:00
>>> end = start.increment(1337)
>>> end = start.increment(1337)
>>> end.print_time()
>>> end.print_time()
10:07:17

The subject, start, gets assigned to the first parameter, self. The argument,1337, gets assigned to the second parameter, seconds. This mechanism can be confusing, especially if you make an error. For example, if you invoke increment with two arguments, you get:

主语,start,用自己(self)赋值给第一个参数。然后参数,1337,赋值给了第二个参数,秒值seconds。

这种表述挺混乱,如果弄错了就更麻烦了。比如,如果你用两个参数调用了 increment 函数,你会得到如下的错误:

>>> end = start.increment(1337, 460)
>>> end = start.increment(1337, 460)
TypeError: increment() takes 2 positional arguments but 3 were given

The error message is initially confusing, because there are only two arguments in parentheses. But the subject is also considered an argument, so all together that’s three.

这个错误信息刚开始看上去还挺不好理解,因为括号里面确实是只有两个参数。不过实际上主语也会把自己当做一个参数,所以总共实际上是有三个参数了。

By the way, a positional argument is an argument that doesn’t have a parameter name; that is, it is not a keyword argument. In this function call:

另外,有一种参数叫位置参数,就是没有参数的名字;这种参数就和关键字参数不同了。下面这个函数调用中:

sketch(parrot, cage, dead=True)

parrot and cage are positional, and dead is a keyword argument.

parrot 和 cage 都是位置参数,dead 是关键字参数。

17.4 A more complicated example 更复杂点的例子

Rewriting is_after (from Section 16.1) is slightly more complicated because it takes two Time objects as parameters. In this case it is conventional to name the first parameter self and the second parameter other:

重写 is_after(参见16.1),这就比较有难度了,因为这个函数接收两个 Time 对象作为参数。在这个情况下,一般就把第一个参数命名为 self,第二个命名为 other:

# inside class Time:
def is_after(self, other):
    return self.time_to_int() > other.time_to_int()

To use this method, you have to invoke it on one object and pass the other as an argument:

要使用这个方法,就必须在一个对象后面调用,然后用另外一个对象作为参数:

>>> end.is_after(start)
>>> end.is_after(start)
True

One nice thing about this syntax is that it almost reads like English: “end is after start?”

这里就体现出一种语法上的好处了,因为读起来基本就根英语是一样的嗯:『end is after start?』

17.5 The init method init方法

The init method (short for “initialization”) is a special method that gets invoked when an object is instantiated. Its full name is __init__ (two underscore characters, followed by init, and then two more underscores). An init method for the Time class might look like this:

init 方法(就是对『initialization』的缩写,初始化的意思,这个方法相当于C++中的构造函数)是一种特殊的方法,在对象被实例化的时候被调用。这个方法的全名是__init__(两个下划线,然后是 init,然后还是两个下划线)。在 Time 类当中,init 方法示例如下:

# inside class Time:
def __init__(self, hour=0, minute=0, second=0):
    self.hour = hour
    self.minute = minute
    self.second = second

It is common for the parameters of __init__ to have the same names as the attributes. The statement

一般情况下,__init__ 方法里面的参数与属性变量的名字是相同的。下面这个语句

        self.hour = hour

stores the value of the parameter hour as an attribute of self. 就存储了参数 hour 的值,赋给了属性变量hour本身。 The parameters are optional, so if you call Time with no arguments, you get the default values.

这些参数都是可选的,所以如果你调用 Time 但不给任何参数,得到的就是默认值。

>>> time = Time()
>>> time = Time()
>>> time.print_time()
>>> time.print_time()
00:00:00

If you provide one argument, it overrides hour:

如果你提供一个参数,就先覆盖 hour 的值:

>>> time = Time (9)
>>> time = Time (9)
>>> time.print_time()
>>> time.print_time()
09:00:00

If you provide two arguments, they override hour and minute.

提供两个参数,就先后覆盖了 hour 和 minute 的值。

>>> time = Time(9, 45)
>>> time = Time(9, 45)
>>> time.print_time()
>>> time.print_time()
09:45:00

And if you provide three arguments, they override all three default values.

如果你给出三个参数,就依次覆盖掉所有三个默认值了。

As an exercise, write an init method for the Point class that takes x and y as optional parameters and assigns them to the corresponding attributes.

做一个练习,写一个 Point 类的 init 方法,接收 x 和 y 作为可选参数,然后赋值给对应的属性。

17.6 The __str__ method str 方法

__str__ is a special method, like __init__, that is supposed to return a string representation of an object.

__str__ 是一种特殊的方法,就跟__init__差不多,str 方法是接收一个对象,返回一个代表该对象的字符串。

For example, here is a str method for Time objects:

例如,下面就是Time 对象的一个 str 方法:

# inside class Time:
def __str__(self):
    return '%.2d:%.2d:%.2d' % (self.hour, self.minute, self.second)

When you print an object, Python invokes the str method:

这样当你用 print 打印输出一个对象的时候,Python 就会调用这个 str 方法:

>>> time = Time(9, 45)
>>> time = Time(9, 45)
>>> print(time) 09:45:00
>>> print(time) 09:45:00

When I write a new class, I almost always start by writing __init__, which makes it easier to instantiate objects, and __str__, which is useful for debugging.

写一个新的类的时候,总要先写出来 __init__ 方法,这样有利于简化对象的初始化,还要写个 __str__ 方法,这个方法在调试的时候很有用。

As an exercise, write a str method for the Point class. Create a Point object and print it.

做个练习,写一下 Point 这个类的 str 方法。创建一个 Point 对象,然后用 print 输出一下。

17.7 Operator overloading 运算符重载

By defining other special methods, you can specify the behavior of operators on programmer-defined types. For example, if you define a method named__add__ for the Time class, you can use the + operator on Time objects. Here is what the definition might look like:

通过定义一些特定的方法,咱们就能针对自定义类型,让运算符有特定的作用。比如,如果你在 Time 类中定义了一个名字为__add__的方法,你就可以对 Time 对象使用『+』加号运算符。

# inside class Time:
def __add__(self, other):
    seconds = self.time_to_int() + other.time_to_int()
    return int_to_time(seconds)

And here is how you could use it:

使用方法如下所示:

>>> start = Time(9, 45)
>>> start = Time(9, 45)
>>> duration = Time(1, 35)
>>> duration = Time(1, 35)
>>> print(start + duration)
>>> print(start + duration)
11:20:00

When you apply the + operator to Time objects, Python invokes __add__. When you print the result, Python invokes __str__. So there is a lot happening behind the scenes!

当你针对 Time 对象使用加号运算符的时候,Python 就会调用你刚刚自定义的 __add__ 方法。当你用 print 输出结果的时候,Python 调用的是你自定义的 __str__ 方法。所以实际上面这个简单的例子背后可不简单。

Changing the behavior of an operator so that it works with programmer-defined types is called operator overloading. For every operator in Python there is a corresponding special method, like __add__. For more details, see Here.

针对用户自定义类型,让运算符有相应的行为,这就叫做运算符重载。Python 当中每一个运算符都有一个对应的方法,比如__add__。更多内容可以看一下 这里的文档

As an exercise, write an add method for the Point class.

做个练习,给 Point 类写一个加法的方法。

17.8 Type-based dispatch 根据对象类型进行运算

In the previous section we added two Time objects, but you also might want to add an integer to a Time object. The following is a version of __add__ that checks the type of other and invokes either add_time or increment:

在前面的章节中,我们把两个 Time 对象进行了相加,但也许有时候需要把一个整数加到 Time 对象上面。下面这一个版本的__add__方法就能够实现检查类型,然后调用add_time 方法或者是 increment 方法:

# inside class Time:
def __add__(self, other):
    if isinstance(other, Time):
        return self.add_time(other)
    else:
        return self.increment(other)
def add_time(self, other):
    seconds = self.time_to_int() + other.time_to_int()
    return int_to_time(seconds)
def increment(self, seconds):
    seconds += self.time_to_int()
    return int_to_time(seconds)

The built-in function isinstance takes a value and a class object, and returns True if the value is an instance of the class.

内置函数isinstance 接收一个值和一个类的对象,如果该值是这个类的一个实例,就会返回真。

If other is a Time object, __add__ invokes add_time. Otherwise it assumes that the parameter is a number and invokes increment. This operation is called a type-based dispatch because it dispatches the computation to different methods based on the type of the arguments.

如果拿来相加的是一个 Time 对象,__add__就会调用 add_time 方法。其他情况下,程序会把参数当做一个数字,然后就调用 increment 方法。这种运算就是根据对象进行的,因为在针对不同类型参数的时候,运算符会进行不同的计算。

Here are examples that use the + operator with different types:

下面的例子中,就展示了用不同类型变量来相加的效果:

>>> start = Time(9, 45)
>>> start = Time(9, 45)
>>> duration = Time(1, 35)
>>> duration = Time(1, 35)
>>> print(start + duration)
>>> print(start + duration)
11:20:00
>>> print(start + 1337)
>>> print(start + 1337)
10:07:17

Unfortunately, this implementation of addition is not commutative. If the integer is the first operand, you get

然而不幸的是,这个加法运算不满足交换率。如果整数放到首位,就会得到如下所示的错误了:

>>> print(1337 + start)
>>> print(1337 + start)
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'int' and 'instance'

The problem is, instead of asking the Time object to add an integer, Python is asking an integer to add a Time object, and it doesn’t know how. But there is a clever solution for this problem: the special method __radd__, which stands for “right-side add”. This method is invoked when a Time object appears on the right side of the + operator. Here’s the definition:

这里的问题就在于,Python 并没有让一个 Time 对象来加一个整数,而是去调用了整形的加法去把一个 Time 对象加到整数上面去,这就用系统原本的加法,而这个加法不能处理 Time 对象。有一个很聪明的方法来解决这个问题:用一个特殊的方法__radd__,这个方法的意思就是『右加』。在一个 Time 对象出现在加号运算符右侧的时候,该方法就会被调用了。下面就是这个方法的定义:

# inside class Time:
def __radd__(self, other):
    return self.__add__(other)

And here’s how it’s used:

使用如下所示:

>>> print(1337 + start)
>>> print(1337 + start)
10:07:17

As an exercise, write an add method for Points that works with either a Point object or a tuple:

做个练习,为 Point 类来写一个加法的方法,要求能处理Point 对象或者一个元组:

• If the second operand is a Point, the method should return a new Point whose x coordinate is the sum of the x coordinates of the operands, and likewise for the y coordinates.

如果第二个运算数是一个Point,该方法就应该返回一个新的Point,新点的横纵坐标分别为两个点坐标相加。

• If the second operand is a tuple, the method should add the first element of the tuple to the x coordinate and the second element to the y coordinate, and return a new Point with the result.

如果第二个运算数是一个元组,该方法就要把元组中第一个元素加到横坐标上,把第二个元素加到纵坐标上面,然后用计算出来的坐标返回一个新的点。

17.9 Polymorphism 多态

Type-based dispatch is useful when it is necessary, but (fortunately) it is not always necessary. Often you can avoid it by writing functions that work correctly for arguments with different types.

在必要的时候,根据类型运算还是很有用的,不过(还好)并不总需要这么做。一般你都可以把函数写成能处理不同类型参数的,这样就不用这么麻烦了。

Many of the functions we wrote for strings also work for other sequence types. For example, in Section 11.2 we used histogram to count the number of times each letter appears in a word.

我们之前为字符串写的很多函数,也都可以用到其他序列类型上面。比如在11.2我们用 histogram 来统计一个单词中每个字母出现的次数。

def histogram(s):
    d = dict()
    for c in s:
        if c not in d:
            d[c] = 1
        else:
            d[c] = d[c]+1
    return d

This function also works for lists, tuples, and even dictionaries, as long as the elements of s are hashable, so they can be used as keys in d.

这个函数也可以用于列表、元组,甚至字典,只要s 的元素是散列的,就能用做 d 当中的键。

>>> t = ['spam', 'egg', 'spam', 'spam', 'bacon', 'spam']
>>> t = ['spam', 'egg', 'spam', 'spam', 'bacon', 'spam']
>>> histogram(t)
>>> histogram(t)
{'bacon': 1, 'egg': 1, 'spam': 4}

Functions that work with several types are called polymorphic. Polymorphism can facilitate code reuse. For example, the built-in function sum, which adds the elements of a sequence, works as long as the elements of the sequence support addition.

针对不同类型都可以运行的函数,就是多态的了。多态能够有利于代码复用。比如内置的函数 sum,是用来把一个序列中所有的元素加起来,就可以适用于所有能够相加的序列元素。

Since Time objects provide an add method, they work with sum:

Time 对象有了自己的加法方法,就可以与 sum 函数来配合使用了:

>>> t1 = Time(7, 43)
>>> t1 = Time(7, 43)
>>> t2 = Time(7, 41)
>>> t2 = Time(7, 41)
>>> t3 = Time(7, 37)
>>> t3 = Time(7, 37)
>>> total = sum([t1, t2, t3])
>>> total = sum([t1, t2, t3])
>>> print(total)
>>> print(total)
23:01:00

In general, if all of the operations inside a function work with a given type, the function works with that type. The best kind of polymorphism is the unintentional kind, where you discover that a function you already wrote can be applied to a type you never planned for.

总的来说,如果一个函数内的所有运算都可以处理某一类型,这个函数就适用于这一类型了。

最好就是无心插柳柳成荫的这种多态,这种情况下你会发现某个之前写过的函数可以用来处理一个之前没有计划到的类型。

17.10 Debugging 调试

It is legal to add attributes to objects at any point in the execution of a program, but if you have objects with the same type that don’t have the same attributes, it is easy to make mistakes. It is considered a good idea to initialize all of an object’s attributes in the init method.

在程序运行的任意时刻都可以给对象增加属性,不过如果你有多个同类对象却又不具有相同的属性,就容易出错了。所以最好在对象实例化的时候就全部用 init 方法初始化对象的全部属性。

If you are not sure whether an object has a particular attribute, you can use the built-in function hasattr (see Section 15.7).

如果你不确定一个对象是否有某个特定的属性,你可以用内置的 hasattr 函数来尝试一下(参考15.7)。

Another way to access attributes is the built-in function vars, which takes an object and returns a dictionary that maps from attribute names (as strings) to their values:

另外一种读取属性的方法是用内置函数 vars,这个函数会接收一个对象,然后返回一个字典,字典中的键值对就是属性名的字符串与对应的值。

>>> p = Point(3, 4)
>>> p = Point(3, 4)
>>> vars(p)
>>> vars(p)
{'y': 4, 'x': 3}

For purposes of debugging, you might find it useful to keep this function handy:

出于调试目的,你估计也会发现下面这个函数随时用一下会带来很多便利:

def print_attributes(obj):
    for attr in vars(obj):
        print(attr, getattr(obj, attr))

print_attributes traverses the dictionary and prints each attribute name and its corresponding value. The built-in function getattr takes an object and an attribute name (as a string) and returns the attribute’s value.

print_attributes 会遍历整个字典,然后输出每一个属性的名字与对应的值。

内置函数 getattr 会接收一个对象和一个属性名字(以字符串形式),然后返回该属性的值。

17.11 Interface and implementation 接口和实现

One of the goals of object-oriented design is to make software more maintainable, which means that you can keep the program working when other parts of the system change, and modify the program to meet new requirements. A design principle that helps achieve that goal is to keep interfaces separate from implementations. For objects, that means that the methods a class provides should not depend on how the attributes are represented.

面向对象编程设计的目的之一就是让软件更容易维护,这就意味着当系统中其他部分发生改变的时候依然能让程序运行,然后可以修改程序去符合新的需求。

实现这一目标的程序设计原则就是要让接口和实现分开。对于对象来说,这就意味着一个类包含的方法要不能被属性表达方式的变化所影响。

For example, in this chapter we developed a class that represents a time of day. Methods provided by this class include time_to_int, is_after, and add_time.

比如,在本章我们建立了一个表示一天中时间的类。该类提供的方法包括 time_to_int, is_after, 和 add_time。

We could implement those methods in several ways. The details of the implementation depend on how we represent time. In this chapter, the attributes of a Time object are hour, minute, and second.

我们可以用几种不同方式来实现这些方法。这些实现的细节依赖于我们如何去表示时间。在本章,一个 Time 对象的属性为时分秒三个变量。

As an alternative, we could replace these attributes with a single integer representing the number of seconds since midnight. This implementation would make some methods, like is_after, easier to write, but it makes other methods harder.

还有一种替代方案,我们就可以把这些属性替换为一个单个的整形变量,表示从午夜零点到当前时间的秒的数目。这种实现方法可以让一些方法更简单,比如 is_after,但也让其他方法更难写了。

After you deploy a new class, you might discover a better implementation. If other parts of the program are using your class, it might be time-consuming and error-prone to change the interface.

当你创建一个新的类之后,你可能会发现有更好的实现方式。如果一个程序的其他部位在用你的类,这时候再来改造接口可能就要消耗很多时间,也容易遇到很多错误了。

But if you designed the interface carefully, you can change the implementation without changing the interface, which means that other parts of the program don’t have to change.

但如果你仔细地设计好接口,你在改变实现的时候就不用去折腾了,这就意味着你程序的其他部位都不需要改动了。

17.12 Glossary 术语列表

object-oriented language: A language that provides features, such as programmer-defined types and methods, that facilitate object-oriented programming.

面向对象的编程语言:提供面向对象功能的语言,比如用户自定义类型和方法,有利于实现面向对象编程。

object-oriented programming: A style of programming in which data and the operations that manipulate it are organized into classes and methods.

面向对象编程:一种编程模式,数据和运算都被封装进类和方法之中。

method: A function that is defined inside a class definition and is invoked on instances of that class.

方法:类内所包含的函数就叫方法,可以在类的接口中被调用。

subject: The object a method is invoked on.

主语:调用方法的对象。

positional argument: An argument that does not include a parameter name, so it is not a keyword argument.

位置参数:一种参数,没有参数名字,不是关键字参数。

operator overloading: Changing the behavior of an operator like + so it works with a programmer-defined type.

运算符重载:像+加号这样的运算符,在处理用户自定义类型的时候改变为相应的运算。

type-based dispatch: A programming pattern that checks the type of an operand and invokes different functions for different types.

按类型处理:一种编程模式,检查运算数的类型,然后根据类型调用不同的函数来进行运算。

polymorphic: Pertaining to a function that can work with more than one type.

多态:一个函数能处理多种类型的特征,就叫做多态。

information hiding: The principle that the interface provided by an object should not depend on its implementation, in particular the representation of its attributes.

信息隐藏:一种开发原则,一个对象提供的接口应该独立于其实现,尤其是不受对象属性设置变化的影响。

17.13 Exercises 练习

Exercise 1 练习1

Download the code from this chapter from Here. Change the attributes of Time to be a single integer representing seconds since midnight. Then modify the methods (and the function int_to_time) to work with the new implementation. You should not have to modify the test code in main. When you are done, the output should be the same as before. Solution

这里下载本章的代码。把 Time 中的属性改变成一个单独的整型变量,用来表示自从午夜至今的秒数。然后修改一下各个方法(以及 int_to_time 函数),让所有功能都能在新的实现下正常工作。尽量就让自己不用去更改main 当中的测试代码。你改完之后,输出应该与之前相同。样例代码

Exercise 2 练习2

This exercise is a cautionary tale about one of the most common, and difficult to find, errors in Python. Write a definition for a class named Kangaroo with the following methods:

这个练习是一个广为流传的寓言故事,其中包含了一个使用 Python的时候最常见但也是最难发现的错误。写一个名为袋鼠的类的定义,要求有如下的方法:

  1. An __init__ method that initializes an attribute named pouch_contents to an empty list.

一个__init__方法,用来初始化一个名为 puntch_contents(就是袋鼠的袋子中内容的意思) 的属性,把该属性初始化为一个空列表。

  1. A method named put_in_pouch that takes an object of any type and adds it to pouch_contents.

一个名为put_in_pouch 的方法,接收任意类型的一个对象,把这个对象放进 pouch_contents 中。

  1. A __str__ method that returns a string representation of the Kangaroo object and the contents of the pouch.

一个__str__方法,返回袋鼠对象的字符串表示,以及袋鼠袋子中的内容。

Test your code by creating two Kangaroo objects, assigning them to variables named kanga and roo, and then adding roo to the contents of kanga’s pouch.

通过建立两个袋鼠对象来测试一下你的代码,把它们俩分别命名为 kanga 和 roo,然后把roo 添加到 kanga 的袋子中。

Download This. It contains a solution to the previous problem with one big, nasty bug. Find and fix the bug.

下载这个代码。里面包含了上面这个练习的一个样例代码,但这个代码有很大很悲催的 bug。找出这个 bug 然后改过来吧。

If you get stuck, you can download This, which explains the problem and demonstrates a solution.

如果你搞不定了,可以下载这个代码,这个代码中解释了整个问题,并且提供了一个可行的解决方案。

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